The extreme dark of the Icelandic winter has a few perks.Between September and April, Iceland is treated to a magnificent natural display: the phenomenon of aurora borealis, named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas. Due to its position on the Mid-Atlantic ridge, Iceland is one of the most active volcanic regions in the world.Its unique geological conditions make for some awe-inspiring rock formations, both beneath the surface as well as above it.Various tube caves—formed by magma flowing underneath the earth's surface after lava has solidified overhead—can safely be explored through guided excursions year-round.Four physiographic-biotic regions divide the country. An archipelagic belt embraces the southwestern coastal waters and the Åland Islands.
Ice climbing on Iceland's glaciers is practiced year-round and takes place mainly on the Sólheimajökull and Svínafellsjökull glaciers in the south of Iceland.Items having an established date, such as dated coins or buildings, or ceramics of known manufacture are most often used.By itself, a cross-dated chronology does not give absolute dates, but it may be calibrated by reference to other dating methods.If in culture A an object produced by culture B is found, A must be contemporary with, or later than, B.The term cross-dating ought strictly to be used only when an object of culture A is also found in proved association with culture B, when overlap of at least part of the time span of each is proved.Despite these distinctions, most citizens strongly believe that they share a common culture and heritage. Finland is bordered on the east by Russia, on the south by the Gulf of Finland and Estonia, on the west by the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden, and on the north and northwest by Norway.