"When seawater is more acidic, less boron gets incorporated into the calcium carbonate shells," she adds.
The researchers first matched this fossil record secured by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition in the western tropical Pacific to existing records from bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice cores that stretch back 800,000 years, which preserve a precise record of past atmospheric composition.
Thus it appears that God probably created those elements when He made the original earth.
In contrast, radiocarbon forms continually today in the earth’s upper atmosphere.
Even if, by some miracle, we all stopped emitting carbon dioxide tomorrow, it would take decades to get us back below the 400 ppm threshold - and we all know that’s never going to happen.
And here’s the thing - September typically has the lowest atmospheric CO2 levels of the year.
And as far as we know, it has been forming in the earth’s upper atmosphere since the atmosphere was made back on Day Two of Creation Week (part of the expanse, or firmament, described in Genesis 1:6–8). Cosmic rays from outer space are continually bombarding the upper atmosphere of the earth, producing fast-moving neutrons (subatomic particles carrying no electric charge) (Figure 1a).1 These fast-moving neutrons collide with atoms of nitrogen-14, the most abundant element in the upper atmosphere, converting them into radiocarbon (carbon-14) atoms.
CARBON-14 IS CREATED (Figure 1a): When cosmic rays bombard the earth’s atmosphere, they produce neutrons.
Keeling says that by November this year, we could be pushing towards new highs, and perhaps even breaking the 410 ppm barrier.
"[I]t already seems safe to conclude that we won’t be seeing a monthly value below 400 ppm this year - or ever again for the indefinite future," he adds.
These excited neutrons then collide with nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere, changing them into radioactive carbon-14 atoms.